Energy consumption is the driving design parameter for many systems that must meet “always-on” market requirements and in IoT in general. For decades, the semiconductor industry has attempted to leverage the essential principle that lowering voltage is the quickest, biggest way to reduce energy for a SoC. Some today contend sub-threshold voltage design is viable while others argue for near-threshold voltage design as the minimum. This panel will explore how far below nominal voltage we can design, in what applications it makes sense and in what ways it will cost us.