Verification is the nemesis and nightmare of every hardware design. The cooler the features in a hardware device, the harder it is to verify. There are no shortcuts here. Whether it is real number spaces, no observability, complex designs or hard to specify features, every design is a new beast. It is difficult to scale, intellectually challenging and computationally among the hardest known problems. This session presents the entire spectrum of verification challenges and solutions- security verification, post-silicon validation, microarchitecture verification, and analog verification. Come and find out from the masters of this “black art” how it is done.